Urban areas need to build in additional capacity to adapt to the range of threats posed by climate change, research has shown.
Risks such as flooding and excessive temperatures are among the risks facing towns and cities, experts conclude.
Two separate studies by the University of Manchester and the European Environment Agency said city planners had to act now to build in resilience.
More than half of the world's population now live in urban areas.
On Monday, researchers from the University of Manchester and property company Bruntwood hosted a seminar to outline findings from the EcoCities project.
"Different cities face different challenges in terms of the hazards they are facing," said Jeremy Carter, lead researcher for the project.